چرا مرغ های کور بیشتر تخم می گذارند

به گزارش یکی از محققان دانشگاه گوئلف سویه ای از مرغهای تخمگذاز که به طور طبیعی کور هستند نسبت به مرغهای معمولی زودتر به تخم می آیند و در سیکل تولید بیشتر تخمگذلری می کنند.
علت تخمگذاری بیشتر در مرغهای نابینا همکنون در حال بررسی می باشد. این مساله به چگونگی تاثیر نور بر روی الگوی تولید مثلی این سویه لگهورن سفید بنام smokey که به طور طبیعی کور هستند مربوط است. کشف این موضوع که چگونگی نور بر عملکرد تخمگذاری پرنده اثر می گذارد میتواند منجر به ایجاد روشهای ی برای مدیریت نور جهت عملکرد بهتر در مرغداری ها شود.
تولید مثل در مرغها معمولا به وسیله افزایش طول دوره روشنایی تحریک می شود. در واقع نور توسط بخشی از مغز بنام هیپوتالاموس جذب می شود و موجب ترشح هورمون ها و کنترل بخشی از سیستم عصبی که مسئول تنظیم خودبخودی بدن نظیر دما ، فشار خون ، تشنگی و گرسنگی و چرخه خواب و بیداری است می شود. اما مرغهای کور نور به شیوه دیگری عمل می کند. علی رغم این که نور به طور مسطقیم هیپوتالاموس را تحریک میکند ، وقتی توسط شبکیه چشم حس میشود موجب مهار تولید مثل نیز میشوند و این مسئله موجب آغاز زودتر تخمگذاری می شود.
با بررسی و مقایسه اشعه های نور دو مکانیسم مختلف که روی تحریک نوری موثرند بیان شده است. مکانیسم اول شامل طول موج های نور آبی – سبز است که عمدتا توسط شبکیه دریافت می شوند و مکانیسم دوم شامل طول موج های طیف قرمز میباشد که به داخل جمجمه نفوذ می کنند و هیپوتالاموس را تحریک می کنند. پیشنهاد شده است که اشعه های آبی – سبز ممکن است خواص مهار کنندگی داشته باشند و اشعه قرمز موجب تحریک تخمگذاری می شود.
هر دو این مکانیسم ها در مرغهای طبیعی وجود دارد و طول دوره روشنایی موجب تحریک تخمگذاری می شود. هر دو این دو مکانیسم ها در مرغ های طبیعی وجود دارد و طول دوره روشنایی موجب ایجاد پاسخ های فیزیولوژیکی میشود. بنابراین در روزهای کوتاه مسیر مهار کننده غالب است و در روز های بلند اشعه قرمز غلبه داشته و بلوغ تولید مثلی را تسریع می کند.
از آنجایی که مرغ های کور فاقد شبکیه هستند اثرات مهار کنندگی اشعه آبی – سبز بر آنها موثرنبوده و لذا حتی بدون افزایش طول روز تخمگذاری را زودتر آغاز می کنند. البته بایستی تحقیقات بیشتری در مورد اینکه چه وقت و چگونه شبکیه چشم تخریب شود انجام گیرد. بعضی جوجه های سویه کور در ابتدای تولد طبیعی هستند اما طی سه هفته اول بینایی خود را از دست داده و کاملا کور می شوند.
مرغ های کور کمتر حالت تهاجمی دارند و در مواجه شدن با انسان کمتر دچار تنش می شوند. البته کار کردن با مرغ هایی که به طور ژنتیکی کور هستند با مشکلاتی نیز همراه است برای مثال لازم است به جای آبخورب های نیپل از آبخوری های فنجانی بزرگ استفاده شود تا پرندگان به راحتی آنها را پیدا کنند. البته گفته شده است که پرندگان کور در مقایسه با پرندگان طبیعی بهتر نقشه محیط خود عادت میکنند. به هر حال لازم است تحقیقات بیشتری برای مشخص شدن چگونگی استفاده از پرندگان کور در صنعت مرغداری صورت گیرد.

به قلم دکتر مازیار محیطی اصلی، متخصص تغذیه طیور
گروه علمی دی جی ام تکنومیکس

دیدگاه ها

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