بیماری کوکسیدیوز در طیور

بیماری کوکسیدیوز در طیور دکتر مازیار محیطی اصلی (برگرفته از کتاب افزودنیهای خوراک دام، طیور و آبزیان) کوکسیدیوز عفونتی در روده است که به وسیله یک انگل تک سلولی به نام کوکسیدیا به وجود می‌آید. تمامی گونه‌های حیوانات ممکن است به کوکسیدیوز مبتلاء شوند، به خصوص هنگامی که حیوانات به صورت متراکم و در تعداد زیاد پرورش داده می شوند خطر ابتلاء به بیماری افزایش می یابد و در صورتی که مدیریت پرورش در سیستم متراکم ضعیف باشد امکان آلودگی دو چندان می گردد.
اگرچه دامها مانند گاو و گوسفند نیز ممکن است به کوکسیدیوز مبتلاء شوند اما به علت صدمات بیشتری که این انگل به طیور وارد می کند و افت قابل توجهی که عملکرد اتفاق می افتد، این بیماری در طیور از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار است. از آنجایی که انتقال بیماری از طریق خوردن اووسیت های دفع شده در مدفوع می باشد این بیماری در مورد گله‌هایی از طیور مانند جوجه‌های گوشتی و مرغهای مادر که روی بستر پرورش می یابند بیشتر مشاهده می‌شود. اکثر کوکسیدیاهای طیور متعلق به جنس ایمریا هستند.
میزبان ایمریا تا حد زیادی اختصاصی بوده و هر میزبان ممکن است با چندین گونه ایمریا که بیماریزایی مختلفی دارند و منحصر به آن میزبان هستند آلوده شود. هفت گونه مهم ایمریا که در ماکیان موجب ایجاد بیماری کوکسیدیوز می شوند عبارتند از: ایمریا تنلا (Eimeria tenella)، ایمریا برونتی (E. brunette)، ایمریا نکاتریس (E. necatrix)، ایمریا اسرولینا (E. acervulina)، ایمریا ماکسیما (E. maxima)، ایمریا میتیس (E. mitis) و ایمریا پراکوکس (E. praecox).
ظاهراً تمامی این هفت گونه در سراسر دنیا وجود دارند اما شایع ترین آنها ایمریا اسرولینا و ایمریا ماکسیما بوده و بیماریزاترین آنها ایمریا تنلا می باشد. هر یک از این سه گونه متداول ایمریا قسمتهای خاصی از روده را درگیر می کنند. ایمریا اسرولینا در دوازدهه، ایمریا ماکسیما در ژوژنوم و ایلئوم و ایمریا تنلا در سکوم ها ایجاد عفونت می کنند. جراحات و خونریزی های روده در نهایت به صورت اسهال خونی قابل تشخیص می باشد.
افزودنیهای خوراکی جهت کنترل و پیشگیری از بیماری کوکسیدیوز با توجه به اینکه بیماری موجب تلفات زیادی در گله های طیور می شود و درمان بیماری نیز بسیار پرهزینه و طولانی می‌باشد لذا پیشگیری از بیماری به مراتب بیشتر از درمان آن اهمیت دارد. جهت کنترل و پیشگیری از بیماری کوکسیدیوز روشهای مختلفی وجود دارد که از جمله می توان به رعایت بهداشت و کاهش رطوبت بستر، توجه به ژنتیک و توسعه سویه هایی از طیور که مقاوم تر هستند، استفاده از واکسن و دارو اشاره نمود. داروهای ضد کوکسیدیوز جهت پیشگیری از بیماری استفاده می شوند.
به ترکیباتی که مانع رشد کوکسیدیاها می شوند ولی آنها را نمی کشند کوکسیدیوستات گفته می شود و ترکیباتی که باعث کشته شدن این انگل‌ها می‌شوند کوکسیدیوسید نام دارند. در مجموع به ترکیباتی که به هر شکل بر ضد کوکسیدیاها عمل می‌کنند ضدکوکسیدیال گفته می‌شود. داروهای ضدکوکسیدیال شامل آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های یونوفر و داروهای شیمیایی هستند که به صورت افزودنی به خوراک طیور و به خصوص جوجه‌های گوشتی اضافه می‌شوند. یونوفرها یونوفرها مهمترین و مؤثرترین داروهای ضدکوکسیدیال هستند.
یونوفرها فرآورده‌های تخمیری هستند که بر نقل و انتقال یون‌های یک و دو ظرفیتی از غشاء سلول تأثیر می‌گذارند. این مسأله موجب جذب مقدار زیادی از یونهای سدیم و پتاسیم توسط اووسیت‌ها می شود که در نتیجه آن فشار اسمزی داخل اووسیت افزایش یافته و موجب جذب مقدار زیادی آب می‌شود که در نهایت باعث تورم و پاره شدن غشاء سلولی اووسیت خواهد شد. یونوفرهایی که به عنوان ضدکوکسیدیوز مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند عبارتند از : موننسین، لازالوسید، سالینومایسین، ناراسین و مادورامایسین.
سولفانامیدها ترکیبات گوگرد دار اولین محصولاتی بودند که برای درمان یا پیشگیری از کوکسیدیوز استفاده شدند. اما با توجه به اثرات کم و بیش سمی سولفانامیدها، مصرف مقادیر زیاد و یا استفاده مداوم از آنها موجب مسمومیت می‌شود. مهمترین سولفانامیدها، سولفاکوینواکسالین است که نیاز ویتامین K پرنده را چندین برابر افزایش می دهد. سولفانامیدها در تشکیل PABA (اسید پارا آمینو بنزوئیک) و اسید فولیک با انگل رقابت می کنند.
در بسیاری از میکروارگانیسم‌ها PABA یک متابولیت اساسی به شمار می‌رود که در سنتز اسید فولیک نقش مهمی دارد. سولفونامیدها نیز به علت مشابه ساختمانی قادرند به جای PABA در واکنش وارد شوند و در نتیجه مشابه‌های اسید فولیک که از نظر عملکرد، تشابهی به اسید فولیک ندارند تولید می‌گردد و رشد باکتری‌ها مختل می‌شود. آمپرولیوم آمپرولیوم یک داروی ضد تیامین می باشد. آمپرولیوم موجب کمبود تیامین در اووسیت ها می‌شود اما با توجه به مقدار تیامین موجود در جیره، اغلب کمبود تیامین در پرنده دیده نمی شود مگر در حالتی که آمپرولیوم همراه با پودر ماهی بخوبی عمل آوری نشده مصرف شود. آنزیم تیامیناز موجود در پودر ماهی خوب عمل آوری نشده موجب کمبود تیامین می شود.
در ضمن آمپرولیوم نباید با جیره‌هایی که حاوی مقادیر زیادی کولین می باشند استفاده شود چون در اثر اختلاط این دو، اسید پیکریک تولید شده و دارو و کولین هر دو از دسترس خارج خواهند شد. نیکاربازین نیکاربازین از دیگر داروهای ضدکوکسیدیال مؤثر می باشد که استفاده از آن در جیره جوجه های گوشتی متداول است. استفاده از نیکاربازین در جیره مرغ‌های تخمگذار یا مادر موجب کاهش توانایی تولید مثلی آنها می‌شود.
همچنین در مرغهای تخم قهوه ای افزودن نیکاربازین به جیره موجب سفید شدن رنگ پوسته تخم مرغ پس از ۴۸ ساعت می شود. این از دست رفتن رنگ پوسته با قطع مصرف دارو به حالت طبیعی بر می‌گردد. در ضمن به نظر می رسد که نیکاربازین اثرات زیان آور تنش گرمایی را تشدید می نماید و باعث افزایش تلفات می شود. نیکاربازین اثر همکوشی متقابلی با ناراسین دارد. اثرات منفی نیکاربازین بر دستگاه تولید مثلی به صورت کاهش تولید تخم مرغ و وزن تخم مرغ و کاهش جوجه درآوری بروز می‌کند.
مکانیسم مولکولی که نیکاربازین از طریق آن بر روی تولیدمثل مرغ تأثیر می گذارد هنوز ناشناخته مانده است. سایر داروهای ضدکوکسیدیوز ضدکوکسیدیالهای کوئینولین و کلوپیدول انرژی متابولیسمی سیستم سیتوکروم کوکسیدیا را محدود می‌کنند. یونوفرهای پولی اتر توازن اسمزی سلولهای پروتوزوا را به وسیله تغییر نفوذپذیری غشاء سلول نسبت به کاتیونهای قلیایی معکوس می کنند.

به قلم دکتر مازیار محیطی اصلی، متخصص تغذیه طیور
گروه علمی دی جی ام تکنومیکس

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