ارتفاع از سطح دریا عامل محدود کننده پرورش جوجه های گوشتی

مهمترین عامل محدود کننده پرورش جوجه های گوشتی ارتفاع منطقه است .به طور کلی توصیه شده است که مناطقی که ارتفاع آنها باالتر از ۲۰۰۱ متر از سطح دریا می باشد، بهتر است فارم پرورش جوجههای گوشتی احداث نشود .در ارتفاعات به دلیل پایین بودن فشار جوی) اکسیژن کم (عارضۀ هیپوکسی) کمبود اکسیژن در بدن (همراه با فعالیت کم ریهها و فشار باالی شریانی افزایش مییابد .این عارضه بر روی عملکرد قلب تأثیر گذاشته و منجر به نارسایی قلبی و عوارض همراه با آن مثل ناهنجاری یا سندرم آسیت) آب آوردن شکم (در جوجههای گوشتی میشود .این ناهنجاری متابولیکی با جمع شدن آب در ناحیه شکم مشخص میشود .مایع محوطه شکمی در واقع پالسمای تراوش شده از کبد است .به هر دلیلی که نیاز به اکسیژن بافتها افزایش یابد ضربان قلب نیز افزایش یافته در نتیجه کار عضله بطن راست افزایش مییابد و سبب افزایش فشار خون سیاهرگی می شود. دلیل اصلی بروز آسیت عواملی همچون سرعت رشد باال، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و درجه حرارت محیط هستند .مشخص شده است که جیرههای با انرژی باال و همچنین جیره های پلت ابتال به سندرم آسیت را افزایش میدهند .چربیهای اضافی پرندگان باعث افزایش نیاز به اکسیژن میشود لذا میزان بروز آسیب را افزایش میدهد .آسیت ممکن
است از مشکالت ثانویه ریکتز یا نرمی استخوان به علت ضعف در دندهها باشد .راههای پیشگیری شامل کاهش انرژی جیره، استفاده از برنامه محدودیت غذایی، به حداقل رسانیدن آلودگیهای سمی خوراک و محدود کردن سدیم جیره میباشد.علاوه بر این، افزودن اکسیژن در سالن پرورش راهکاری موفقیت آمیز بوده اما هزینۀ این راه حل بسیار باالست .افزایش سرعت و شدت تهویه ، موجب باال رفتن میزان اکسیژن موجود می گردد اما از آنجایی که سطح رطوبت در مناطق مرتفع پایین است این کار منجر به کاهش بیشتر رطوبت می گردد و در نتیجه مشکالت بیشتری را به وجود می آورد . پایین بودن سطح رطوبت در مناطق مرتفع به طرق مختلف بر روی وضعیت جسمی و سالمت پرنده تأثیر می گذارد .به عنوان مثال، دهان و بینی پرنده سوزش پیدا می کند و پوست آنچنان خشک و خارش دار می شود که در مواردی حتی ترک هایی هم بر روی پوست مشاهده می شود .غشاء مخاطی بینی و گلوگاه هم دچار خشکی و ترک می گردد و در نتیجه محلی برای جمع شدن میکروب و باکتری و ورود آنها به جریان خون و به دنبال آن وقوع بیماری های مختلف صورت میگیرد. متخصصین مجموعه دی جی ام تکنومیکس برای اولین بار در ایران اقدام به طراحی جیره های منطقه ای برای کنسانتره های طیور گوشتی نمودند و مناطق کوهستانی و جلگه ای را از هم تفکیک کرده و با این اقدام ریسک وقوع ناهنجاریهای متابولیکی را کاهش دادند .
دکتر مازیار محیطی اصلی
مدیر تحقیق و توسعه مجموعه دی جی ام تکنومیکس

دیدگاه ها

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