اثرات منفی انروفلوکساسین بر ناهنجاری‌های مفصلی و فلجی

انروفلوکساسین آنتی‌بیوتیکی از خانواده فلوروکینولون‌ها است که به علت خاصیت میکروب‌کشی وسیع‌الطیفی که دارد برای پیشگیری و درمان آلودگی‌های میکروبی در حیوانات از جمله طیور استفاده می‌شود. این آنتی‌بیوتیک علیه باکتری‌های گرم مثبت و گرم منفی عمل نموده و رشد و تکثیر آنها را مختل می‌نماید.
استفاده از انروفلوکساسین در طیور به علت ایجاد مقاومت دارویی و سایر عوارض آن در سال ۲۰۰۵ توسط FDA ممنوع شده است. همچنین در حیوانات در حال رشد، این آنتی‌بیوتیک سبب بروز مشکلاتی در مفاصل پا می‌شود که در سگ‌های در حال رشد به اثبات رسیده است. در جوجه‌های گوشتی که سرعت رشد بالایی دارند استفاده از دزهای بالا یا طولانی مدت این دارو مشکلات مفصلی، فلجی و آرتروز را ایجاد می‌کند.
بنابراین استفاده از آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های خانواده کینولون‌ها نیازمند دقت زیادی می‌باشد. دز توصیه شده انروفلوکساسین برای جوجه‌های گوشتی روزانه ۱۰ میلی‌گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن است. بر این اساس معمولاً مقدار ۲۵/۰ تا ۵/۰ لیتر انروفلوکساسین ۱۰% به ازای هر ۱۰۰۰ لیتر آب آشامیدنی طیور توصیه شده است.
اما این مقدار در فصول گرم سال که پرنده آب بیشتری مصرف می‌نماید بایستی تعدیل شود تا دز دریافتی دارو سبب ایجاد اثرات منفی در مفاصل پای پرندگان با سرعت رشد بالا نشود. برای مثال اگر از انروفلوکساسین با غلظت یک در هزار برای جوجه‌ گوشتی ۱۰ روزه‌ای با متوسط وزن ۲۸۰ گرم استفاده شود، از آنجایی که این پرنده در شرایط عادی روزانه حدود ۱۰۰ میلی‌لیتر آب مصرف می‌کند میزان دریافتی انروفلوکساسین در آن تقریباً برابر با ۴۰ میلی‌گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن خواهد بود.
اما همین پرنده در شرایط هوای گرم تابستان ممکن است تا دو برابر این مقدار آب مصرف کند که دز دریافتی دارو را به ۸۰ میلی‌گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن افزایش می‌دهد. البته دز دریافتی به ازای وزن بدن در جوجه‌های جوان‌تر بیشتر خواهد بود و اثرات منفی آن بارزتر است. از طرفی جوجه‌هایی که در معرض هوای گرم قرار دارند خوراک اندکی مصرف می‌کنند که سبب کاهش دریافت مواد مغذی در آنها می‌شود و لذا دریافت عنصر کلسیم نیز در آنها کمتر است که این مقدار اندک نیز با انروفلوکساسین دریافتی به مقدار زیاد باند می‌شود و نهایتاً پرنده را دچار فلجی می‌کند.
در صورتی که در این شرایط فسفات جیره افزایش داده شود طبیعتاً مشکل بیشتر خواهد شد چون تعادل کلسیم و فسفر جیره بر هم زده می‌شود. اما استفاده از ‌CMP در آب آشامیدنی و قطع مصرف انروفلوکساسین می‌تواند مشکل را برطرف نماید.

به قلم دکتر مازیار محیطی اصلی، متخصص تغذیه طیور
گروه علمی دی جی ام تکنومیکس

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